Michael is an avid pet-lover and content writer on topical themes related to animal care.
If you are a pet owner, you may be asking when the best time is to begin training your puppy. According to new studies, the actual process of training starts before the puppy is even born!
In the past, there was no technology available to observe unborn puppies. Therefore, the prenatal period was not viewed as a stage that could influence the growth and development of a dog. But now the equipment is in place and it is possible to observe through ultrasound what takes place in the womb as far back as the fourth gestation week.
Puppies respond to touch from the time they are born. Scientists have formed a theory that this conditioning starts before birth and it is likely developed through nudges from the mother. Research has shown that animals born of mothers that are petted and shown affection are calmer and easier to socialize.
Within the first two weeks after a puppy is born, it may be able to establish some connections and recognize the human that is taking care of it, though it is still too early for any lessons to be permanently imprinted in its consciousness at this level.
From the third week to the twelfth week, the puppy starts to develop a concept of behavior. Playfulness, curiosity and exploration begin to have a role in the puppy's development and the understanding of its identity as part of the household.
There is need for the puppy to have contact with its mother and littermates so that its skills and abilities grow naturally and the learning process carries on unhindered.
Puppies are able to pick up basic commands and practices when they are eight weeks old and will continue to do so at a rate that is determined by their ability to concentrate, their physical stamina and coordination.
Each pet is different in terms of how it builds relationships and how perceptions develop over time. Attending obedience classes can help a pet owner learn which approach works best for their own pet and how to optimize the learning process.
More importantly, they will also be able to learn how best to communicate with their animal in a manner that it understands. While there are trainers who prefer to provide socialization sessions soon after the puppy has been settled in its new home, it is preferable to start obedience classes when the puppy is around 3-6 months of age after vaccination.
Procrastinating or putting off training means more difficulties later for the dog and its owner. This is especially so if the animal has already started adopting bad habits and negative behavioral tendencies. It is always easier to instill proper manners early than to try and reverse negative ones later on.
Age is not the only factor when trying to establish the best time to begin the training process. One needs to look also into how mature and stable the animal is.
Training is a two-way process and a handler should always be attentive to the signals coming from the dog, rather than only being focused on how well it is responding to his commands. Remember that if your animal is frightened, stressed, distracted, unwell or confused, this will sabotage the learning process.
Since a puppy has a huge affinity for learning quickly, take advantage of this and begin to get it used to a schedule immediately you bring it home with you. Train it by ensuring that you conduct activities at the same set times each day, including meal times. In every step of the process, ensure that your training is patient, methodical and systematic.
If you have had the chance or experience of raising a puppy, you are aware of how much behavioral instruction and correction they need in order to develop them as pets.
Unfortunately, trying to eliminate problem behaviors is one thing that most dog owners eventually face. So again, it is essential that behavioral training be done when they are still as young as possible so that you are not stuck trying to break their bad habits when they are already grown up.
Here we will focus on a few of the most commonly encountered behavioral problems and how to curb them.
The following are key guidelines to bear in mind before training your puppy.
Recognize that your puppy is new to the world and as such, it will not be able to cope with undue physical, emotional or mental stress. Anything that exacts a lot of pressure will take its toll on the pet and may lead to problems later on.
Therefore be careful not to rough-handle the puppy in the course of its formative period. If the training is characterized by stress and fear, this will be a hindrance to the learning process and it will become counterproductive in terms of what you intend to achieve in the end. Remember to be firm but gentle.
When it comes to learning, a puppy has a shorter attention span than a child. Once your puppy gets tired physically or mentally, the learning process becomes impaired and the training ceases to be effective.
The puppy will continue to learn as long as its attention is focused on you as the trainer. Therefore ensure that the activities that you select in order to develop its skills are not lengthy or tedious but brief and straight to the point.
We live in a world that demands easier and faster outcomes and there is a compulsive, obsessive addiction to instant results.
However, when it comes to moulding a puppy's behaviour through training, it is necessary not to set your expectations too high by assuming that the process will begin yielding changes overnight. It will only result in frustration.
Recognize that puppies learn in spurts, and they are going to have lapses in memory. Therefore you should not feel despondent if your puppy seems to have forgotten the activity lessons of the previous day. Have patience from the outset and this will save you from much exasperation.
The simpler the steps you put the puppy through during your training regimen, the better your results will be. The best way to do training is to adopt a method that the puppy will enjoy following rather than one that it has to endure.
If the activities are too intensive or complicated and the puppy seems to be struggling, try to see how you can break them down into smaller sessions or sequences that the puppy will find easier to follow and master.
Confidence is key to a healthy dog, and this process needs to start when it is young. Work on building the confidence of the puppy by engaging it with your attention and affirmations.
Refrain from always taking on the role of a trainer and instead make time to play with it and allow the puppy to enjoy your company. Once your pet is secure in the feeling that it has a friend in you, the training process will easier and more effective.
One of the most important aspects of puppy training is teaching it to maintain hygienic standards and cleanliness around the home.
Typically, a dog will make a distinction between the place of feeding, the place of rest and the place where it relieves itself. However, its previous upbringing plays a role in the ability to make this distinction.
This is where the background of the puppy comes into play. If it was previously kept in derelict, squalid or cramped conditions, the puppy will be more difficult to housetrain.
So, the first step is to ensure that you only purchase a puppy from a breeder who has facilities that separate the sleeping, feeding and toilet sections.
Ensure that if there is no one present to supervise or monitor its activities, the puppy remains in its crate. Then set aside a room or a section of the house which you can use to practice and develop the puppy's abilities as far as cleanliness and hygiene are concerned.
This place should not have much furniture or any items which have sentimental value to the family. Before you start working on your pet, clear the area of anything that you would deem as valuable.
As long as the puppy continues to obey your instructions and cooperate in the training, is not messy, aggressive or destructive, but maintains cleanliness, then it should be allowed to have freedom in the room.
If there is a setback and it relapses to an undisciplined state, you will need to bring it back to the crate again or to the most recent stage of the training and start the process all over.
So, the principle is that the more cooperative the puppy is, the more freedom you gradually allow it to have to explore other parts of the house.
The habit of jumping on people is something that owners, unfortunately, encourage without their conscious knowledge.
People usually get excited by the fact that a young, adorable puppy is expressing delight and affection toward them in this way.
While this may be fun and pleasurable when the puppy is young and harmless, the behavior can prove to be harmful and dangerous for both adults and children when the dog has fully matured.
Our family kept a dog once which had developed this practice. Since the habit was not managed when the pet was a puppy, no amount of reprimand could change the behavior and it continued to do so to everyone it met, irrespective of the mess it was causing.
So how can this behavior be stopped when the pet is young?
The way to curb it is to always ensure that you hold the puppy when it jumps and then place it down again on the ground gently.
Praise and encourage it when it stays on the ground without jumping up at you or anyone else. Compliment the dog for staying down by lowering yourself down to the ground such that you are almost on eye level with your pet.
It is important to know that behaviors can be rechanneled. You can change the way a dog behaves by simply providing an alternative habit for them to develop—a new behavior that replaces the undesirable one you want to get rid of.
For example, instead of jumping up at you, you could train the puppy to express its delight in a different way, for example by extending its paw.
You could train the dog to do this as a socially acceptable way of expressing friendship or gladness. Some owners teach dogs other ways like rolling over on the ground which is still better than jumping on someone.
So, the key to curbing this behavior is to try and redirect the exuberance and energy to other forms of expression. The puppy needs to learn that the behavior is inappropriate.
Other members of your household and friends who come into contact with your pet should not encourage the habit by picking the puppy up and hugging it.
It is normal for dogs to vocalize their feelings as a way of communication, but this is a practice that can easily go too far if it is not managed quickly. It can pose a major problem in a crowded neighborhood or within apartment buildings.
It stirs up tensions between neighbors and is not the best way to introduce your dog to the community. Here are some of the ways you can curb the habits:
Anyone who has been nipped by a puppy can attest to the fact that it is not a pleasant experience at all.
Dog skins are tough enough to handle nipping during the course of interaction without any issues.
However, human skin is not the same, and the nip of a puppy can easily penetrate. There are owners who have had their fingers bitten through by Jack Russell and Rottweiler puppies less than 3 months old.
The owners' reactions were shock and grief at the reality that their pets may have to be terminated. When a dog crosses the line and goes on the attack, serious measures have to be put in place.
Fortunately, owners do not have to wait until it is too late. There are steps that can be followed to ensure that a puppy does not grow to become a problematic dog.
So the first thing to understand is that the puppy is not gnawing at your leg with malice. Young dogs tend to do this. It is something that comes naturally to them when playing with their kind and is part of the way they engage with their environment.
In the natural setting, the immediate family members step in when the behaviour becomes excessive—in this case, the mother and the other siblings.
However, most puppies are separated from their original family before they have developed such skills and are therefore untrained.
So, the solution is to allow your puppy to intermingle with other dogs. Their natural way of having fun is to jump about, chase each other, dash about and roll over. If your puppy's activities become too excessive, the other dogs will be able to put it in check.
So socializing with dogs which are different from yours will help your puppy to control its nipping behaviour. It will also help your puppy overcome the fear of other dogs, and will allow it to spend its energy such that it is calmer when interacting with your family members and friends.
If the puppy does not have a place to expend its energy and playful nature through socializing with other dogs, it may end up becoming hyperactive and even wild. It will start adopting behavioural patterns that are difficult to manage.
A puppy needs to be socialized well in order to have the proper canine skills and control itself from being too aggressive when it is confronted by new and unexpected situations. Introducing your pet to new dogs and even other humans will be a big contribution to its learning process.
How you handle your puppy also bears upon its behavioral development. Avoid being aggressive when dealing with your puppy. Do not assault, hit or slap the puppy when it does something wrong. Treat the puppy with the same level of consideration and respect that you would want to be extended to you.
Physically punishing the puppy will induce the element of fear. Your training will be hampered if the pet is afraid of you. It will not encourage the puppy to abstain from nipping but may have the opposite effect.
Aim instead at training your pet through positive reinforcement, providing it with treats and compliments and instill the knowledge that your puppy can still enjoy itself without having to nip at you or others. Always try to divert its attention to other activities.
Another way to change your pet's behavior is to divert the puppy's focus from the chewing habit with toys that it can play with.
To keep the dog from gnawing at items like shoes and bags, you need to provide it with a lot of chewable toys that will keep it preoccupied on a daily basis.
Keep essential items out of reach of the puppy around the house and ensure that such items do not find their way into its normal play area.
If you find the puppy has already seized such an item, be it a boot, shoe or bag, use something to distract it with and then replace the item with a toy.
Once the puppy occupies itself with the toy instead, compliment it for the action in order to strengthen the possibility that it will replace the habit of biting or nipping people.
Also communicate this information to everyone who is involved with the puppy on a consistent basis, that the puppy is not to be allowed to chew random objects or nip anyone.
If everyone discourages the puppy from nipping, but one person does not, then the training process is set back and curbing the behavior becomes more difficult.
Unless this behaviour is completely curbed when the puppy is still young, it will result in the dog biting people when it is fully mature. The habit tends to worsen over time and the dog feels that it is a valid way to express anger or frustration.
So, a biting puppy must be corrected immediately. Unruly behaviour of this nature needs to be confronted and discouraged as early on as possible before it grows on the puppy and becomes irreversible.
Bear in mind that the mother who bore the puppy would not allow herself to be bitten even if the puppy was just playful.
She would respond by biting the puppy back. This would hurt the puppy without injuring it grievously. The result would be that the puppy learns the lesson while still young and refrains from nipping the mother.
Now since the puppy is no longer with the mother and other littermates, it is necessary to bring it into an environment where its behaviour can be managed in the right way.
There are classes sponsored by communities and animal organizations where pet dogs can be able to come together and have fun and learn from one another. They can also learn in these venues, how to interact with members of their kind as well as the right way to interact with humans.
It is recommended to socialize your puppy before it attains 3 months of age. As noted before, if a dog is poorly socialized or was never socialized at all, it will tend to pick up undesirable habits.
Do this before the dog matures to a level where it can pose a threat to certain members of the society like children whose parents would not allow them to go near a fully grown dog.
When it is still a puppy, everyone is more comfortable with handling the pet as opposed to when it is fully mature and strangers are wary of how it would react to them.
One of the first things the puppy will need to master is climbing stairs especially if you are in a multi-story building.
Even if you live in an apartment without any stairs, it would still be necessary to accustom your dog as this could be beneficial. If a puppy is hesitant and reacts to stairs in fear, there is a need to develop its confidence.
How can this best be done?
The way to build a puppy's confidence is not to begin at the top, but at the bottom of the staircase. Take the first step and then motivate or encourage your pet to join you by speaking reassuringly or by using toys or treats.
Once the puppy has joined you on the first stair, step back down and then repeat the action until your pet is able to ascend that first stair without being aided.
Follow this procedure for the rest of the stairs. Thereafter, you will be able to apply the same method when training the puppy to descend the stairs.
As with other aspects of the puppy training process, it is important not to rush this lesson, patience is required in order to completely cure the puppy of its fear of stairs.
Preventing your pet from leaving your home to roam about the neighborhood independently is simply the responsible thing to do as an owner.
Roaming not only exposes your pet to harm, but all the damage that may occur as a result of its actions will be traced back to the owner who will then be held liable.
Lots of places have laws against this and you would not want to find yourself in the middle of an expensive lawsuit.
Though this often occurs when the pet slips off without the owner's knowledge, it is much easier to work at preventing any escapes that to recapture the pet afterwards.
Boredom is what leads dogs to plot their escape and this can be long in the making. They will explore nooks and crannies to find an escape route to a better place if possible.
However, if the dog has all that it needs—proper accommodation, good food, clean water, proper grooming, favorite toys—then it will tend to stay put and busy itself until the owner comes back.
If the dog has a lot of pent-up or unspent energy, it will also want to escape. Therefore, try to identify energetic play activities during the day which the puppy can engage in, especially if it does not have other playmates around.
Having well spent its energy, the dog will be more calm and relaxed.
Ensure also that your property is escape-proof. Regularly check your fences for likely wear and tear, or for damages that could potentially allow a dog to escape.
If your dog is in the habit of burrowing in the ground, you may need to extend your fence deeper using metal stakes. If the dog has a habit of leaping over objects, ensure your fence is high enough.
Avoid placing any items propped up against the fence that the dog might use for leverage.
If none of these work, then it would be better to keep the dog confined either inside the house or in some other enclosure when you are not available.
Michael Duncan (author) from Germany on February 12, 2020:
I agree, Carolyn, it is happy work! The simplest way is to invest quality time during the formative stages after which the lessons become second nature to the pet. It is smooth sailing thereafter for owner and dog alike. Hope you find an amazing pup if you decide to acquire one!
Michael Duncan (author) from Germany on February 12, 2020:
Thanks for your comment, Liz. Great to know that your pet has developed well as a member of the household. Indeed, our four-legged friends make for delightful companions!
Carolyn Fields from South Dakota, USA on February 12, 2020:
Wow! That's a lot of information.
We were just talking about getting a puppy this morning. This is a good reminder that there's a lot of work involved - although it is happy work!
Liz Westwood from UK on February 11, 2020:
I wish I had read this guide before we had a puppy join our extended family over 3 years ago. He is now a much loved member of the family.
Help, my puppy is wild!
Here are a few tips to help calm your wild puppy.
Puppies get especially wound near dusk, or between 6 and 8 p.m., depending on where you live.
When possible, exercise and potty your puppy before this time. Then, she can rest in her crate with a Kong stuffed with her dinner, while you enjoy yours.
New rule: “Jumping makes all attention and fun activity stop.”
If you are sitting and your puppy jumps on you, stand up, fold your arms and turn your back. After your puppy has all four paws on the floor, sit back down. Wait a few seconds, then pet her if she is sitting, standing, or laying down.
This also applies for when you are on walks. If you are walking your pup and she begins to bite, paw and jump up, stop walking, cross your arms and turn away. As soon as she stops, start walking again. Remember to keep those walks short — no more than 15 minutes — for tired puppy legs!
Leashes, tethered to a sturdy object, can be a lifesaver. Tethering is especially effective for supervised child-puppy play. Playing with a tethered pup has some special rules:
Engage your puppy by playing with a small toy, or training an easy skill. Feed your puppy a treat before he gets over-stimulated. Practice walking away from, then up to your puppy, and dropping a treat on the ground if his paws stay on the floor.
If your puppy starts jumping or biting at you or your child, walk away. Interrupt the playtime by stepping out of his reach. Wait without talking until he calms down (sits or keeps all four feet on the ground). After he calms down, say “Go play!” and resume playing, petting or teaching a trick.
Take advantage of crate training and give your puppy some alone time to relax in her crate during the day.
Put her in her crate for about 30 minutes, once or twice a day while you are home. (One of these times can be during the puppy witching hour!) Be sure she has a frozen Kong or other tasty chew toy in the crate. This will give you a break from your wild puppy, and teach her to settle herself for short periods of time.
This exercise can also teach her that her crate is a relaxing, safe place. With practice, she may go to the crate on her own. Teach children and other people in the house not to disturb a puppy who is in her crate.
If need be, you can cover your puppy’s crate with a blanket, or add a “Do not disturb” sign to help remind your family.
Practice these tips and you may have your little Tazmanian Devil settled in no time!
(Picture Credit: Getty Images)
Relationship-based training combines several different training methods, but focuses on a more individualized approach for both dog and human. It is the relationship between dog and human that drives everything.
This method strives to meet the needs of the dog and the trainer, to foster communication, and to strengthen their bond. Basically, it’s about being mutually beneficial.
The person must know how to read their dog’s body language, what rewards most motivate their dog, and how to meet their dog’s basic needs before each training session begins. Positive reinforcement encourages good behaviors.
The dog’s environment is controlled to limit possible unwanted behaviors. New information is built on previous success.
For example, a dog must learn to “sit” in a quiet room before trying to perform the command in a park with squirrels and kids and other distractions. Difficulty increases gradually.
When a dog doesn’t perform the desired behavior, the human must figure out why instead of punishing. Is the dog focusing on distractions? Hurt? Unable to hear? Or just unwilling to perform?
This relationship-based training leads to a deep and meaningful bond, but it takes time and patience. It may not have enough to differentiate it from other training methods, but rather seems to be inclusive of many aspects of other successful methods.
You may find that your relationship with your dog improves regardless of which training method you use, and certainly that bond will help you continue your training.
What dog training method works best for you? Are there any other methods that you find helpful? Let us know in the comments below!
When you decide that you want to modify the behavior of your dog (or another human being) there is one fundamental decision that you must make-namely are you going to base your training methods on rewards, or punishments, or some combination of the two. So-called discipline-based training programs tend to use punishment as a major tool, taking away privileges, inflicting pain, or some other negative outcome, if the individual fails to behave in the desired manner. That's the way that governments work, fining you or jailing you if you do not behave as they want you to. For dogs, the punishment may be in the form of a leash jerk, shock from an electronic collar, or scolding, slapping etc. The alternative is reward-based training, where each desired behavior results in a good outcome, such as treats or praise, and erroneous behavior simply does not give you the desired reward.
Obviously we want to use the most effective form of training, so the question is which works better, and produces the best outcome, reward-based training (so-called positive training) or discipline and punishment based training. There are several ways that this question can be addressed, however I am going to deal with only one possible answer.
When we are talking about learning, we are actually talking about some form of relatively permanent change in behavior that comes about because of an individual's experiences in the world. More than 200 years ago the philosopher John Locke described learning as forming an association, which is actually a mental connection between events that occur in some sequence. Most people understand this as learning an association between an action and in outcome, such as learning that clicking a wall switch turns on the room light, while sticking your finger in the electrical outlet produces a painful shock.
There is however a form of learning which the average person either does not know about, or seldom thinks about, called "classical conditioning". However it is a very important and fundamental form of learning through which associations are formed between events occurring in the real world and reflexes or emotional responses in the individual. The word "conditioning" is just psychological jargon for learning, and "classical" is applied because it was the first form of learning to be that was scientifically studied.
Classical conditioning was first systematically studied by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. His research on this topic started with a casual observation. He was studying the salivary secretions in dogs and knew that when he put food in an animal's mouth it would always salivate. He also observed that when he worked with the same dog on several occasions, the dog would begin to salivate when it observed things associated with food, such as the food dish or even the sight of the person who normally brought him food. Pavlov recognized that the dog's response showed a special form of learning because it involved a response that can't be controlled voluntarily. For example, if I would say to you, "Make your mouth water," you would find it virtually impossible to set up a constant flow of saliva simply by willing it. Pavlov realized that something special had occurred: An involuntary action (salivation) that is usually triggered only by a certain class of events (food) was now being controlled by a new stimulus (the sight of the experimenter).
Pavlov studied this process using a simple procedure. During training he presented a neutral stimulus (one that doesn't cause the dog to salivate) such as the sound of a bell, immediately before he puffed a bit a meat powder into the dog's mouth to trigger salivation. A few repetitions of the sequence "ring-puff-slobber" would then be followed by a test with just the sound of bell. Sure enough, the bell, which originally had no effect on the dog, would now cause it to salivate. What the neutral stimulus was made no difference it could be a click, a light, a drawing of a circle, a touch on the rump, or anything else. The important thing was that now the dog was responding to it as if that stimulus was the meat powder-by salivating. The dog doesn't have to want this happen, or participate actively in the learning process, it will just happen on its own.
Why should we care about training our dogs to drool on cue, when many of us are already bothered by the amount of drooling that they do naturally? The truth of the matter is that we are not interested in drooling the real importance of classical conditioning is that it is the way which we learn to attach emotional responses to things. All we need is to have a sequence where we encounter a stimulus, which is followed by an event which triggers an emotion. A few repetitions of "stimulus-event-emotion" will soon have the stimulus itself trigger the emotion because of classical conditioning.
The most famous example of how classical conditioning can produce learned emotional responses was provided by John Watson who conducted an experiment that would never make it past the ethical review panel in any of today's research institutions. He took an 11-month-old baby, named Albert, and showed him a white rat. Albert demonstrated no fear of it at all. Next Watson showed Albert the rat and at the same time had someone bang two metal rods together to cause a loud clanging sound. This startled Albert, frightened him, and caused him to cry. After a few repetitions of this sequence of "rat-clang-fearful cry," just the sight of the white rat would cause him to cry and try to crawl away. He not only acted afraid of the rat, but now Albert seemed to be afraid of any furry objects, including white rabbits, stuffed toys, fur coats and even a Santa Claus beard. Watson concluded that he had classically conditioned the emotion of fear, and attached this emotion to white furry objects in Albert's mind. Notice that Albert did not have to want to learn, or actively participate in trying to learn this fearfulness, it happened automatically simply due to association of the stimuli with something that triggered his emotional response.
Classical conditioning of emotions provides one reason why reward-based training procedures should work better and establish a stronger bond between the dog and his trainer, than punishment based systems. Every time you give the dog a treat, or some other reward, you set up the event sequence "sight of you-treat-pleasant feeling." Even if your timing is off and you are not a very good and knowledgeable trainer, there is no harm being done in this case. Every instance of reward makes it more likely that the dog will feel better about you because you are actually conditioning the emotional response "sight of you-pleasant feeling."
The flip side of this coin is the use of punishment of harsh corrections. The sight of you, or your hand, or the training leash and collar immediately followed by pain or discomfort will ultimately come to be associated with negative feelings and avoidance. This was demonstrated to me when I visited a facility that trained protection dogs. The technique that the trainer was using was rather harsh and punitive, the idea being that dog should ultimately develop a distrust and antipathy for any strangers. This was accomplished by presenting the dog with a series of negative encounters with people he did not know, in order to classically condition the dog's aggressive feelings toward anyone with whom he was unfamiliar. However I also noticed that when the trainers approached the dogs' kennels with the training collar in their hand, the dogs would retreat to the far wall and try to avoid having the collar put over their head. Clearly the trainers and the entire training scenario had come to be conditioned to produce unpleasant feelings.
As I looked at these behaviors I could not help but think of my own dogs, who have been reward-trained (perhaps to excess), and who dance merrily around me and mill in front of the door with tails batting and eyes full of eagerness when they see me pick up the bag that contains their training gear or when I reach for their leashes. My dogs may not be the best trained nor the most perfect performers in the obedience ring, but they do their exercises with joy, because their numerous rewards and classical conditioning have caused everything associated with their training to produce positive feelings.
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